November 2017

# Check of CommonLib using PVS-Studio

Nov 2017

Courtesy developers of PVS-Studio, I could use this static code analysis tool to check my home projects. I blogged about the tool recently. It's powerful and especially good at finding issues with 32/64-bit portability. Now I analyzed CommonLib - a library I develop and use for many years, which contains various facilities for C++ programming. That allowed me to find and fix many bugs. Here are the most interesting ones I've met:

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# Ported CommonLib to 64 Bits

Nov 2017

I recently updated my CommonLib library to support 64-bit code. This is a change that I planned for a very long time. I written this code so many years ago that 64-bit compilation on Windows was not popular back then. Today we have opposite situation - a modern Windows application or game could be 64-bit only. I decided to make the library working in both configurations. The way I did it was:

  1. Created 64-bit configurations in Visual Studio project.
  2. Went over all the code. Made changes required to work correctly in 64-bit configuration.
  3. Compiled the code - made sure it's compiling successfully.
  4. Fixed everything that compiler reported as warnings.
  5. Made sure tests are passing.
  6. Scanned the code with PVS-Studio static code analysis tool. I covered this point in a separate blog post.

The most important and also most frequent change I needed to make in the code was to use size_t type for every size (like the number of bytes), index (for indexing arrays), count (number of elements in some collection), length (e.g. number of characters in a string) etc. This is the "native" type intended for that purpose and as such it's 32-bit or 64-bit, depending on configuration. This is also the type returned by sizeof operator and functions like strlen. Before making this change, I carelessly mixed size_t with uint32.

I sometimes use maximum available value (all ones) as a special value, e.g. to communicate "not found". Before the change I used UINT_MAX constant for that. Now I use SIZE_MAX.

I know there is a group of developers who advocate for using signed integers for indices and counts, but I'm among the proponents of unsigned types, just like C++ standard recommends. In those very rare situations where I need a signed size, correct solution is to use ptrdiff_t type. This is the case where I apply the concept of "stride", which I blogged about here (Polish) and here.

I have a hierarchy of "Stream" classes that represent a stream of bytes that can be read from or written to. Derived classes offer unified interface for a buffer in memory, a file and many other. Before the change, all the offsets and sizes in my streams were 32-bit. I needed to make a decision how to change them. My first idea was to use size_t. It seems natural choice for MemoryStream, but it doesn't make sense for FileStream, as files can always exceed 4 GB size, regardless of 32/64-bit configuration of my code. Such files were not supported correctly by this class. I eventually decided to always use 64-bit types for stream size and cursor position.

There are cases where my usage of size_t in the library interface can't work down to the implementation, because underlying API supports only 32-bit sizes. That's the case with zlib (a data compression library that I wrapped into stream classes in files ZlibUtils.*), as well as BSTR (string type used by Windows COM that I wrapped into a class in files BstrString.*). In those cases I just put asserts in the code checking whether actual size doesn't exceed 32-bit maximum before downcasting. I know it's not the safe solution - I should report error there (throw an exception), but well... That's only my personal code anyway :)

BstrString::BstrString(const wchar_t *wcs, size_t wcsLen)
    assert(wcsLen < (size_t)UINT_MAX);
    Bstr = SysAllocStringLen(wcs, (UINT)wcsLen);

From other issues with 64-bit compatibility, the only one was following macro:

/// Assert that ALWAYS breaks the program when false (in debugger - hits a breakpoint, without debugger - crashes the program).
#define	ASSERT_INT3(x) if ((x) == 0) { __asm { int 3 } }

The problem is that Visual Studio offers inline assembler in 32-bit code only. I needed to use __debugbreak intrinsic function from intrin.h header instead.

Overall porting of this library went quite fast and smoothly, without any major issues. Now I just need to port the rest of my code to 64 bits.

Comments | #visual studio #c++ #commonlib Share

# New Version of PVS-Studio

Nov 2017

PVS-Studio is a great, commercial static code analyzer. I blogged about it few years ago. Now the latest version is much more powerful. It supports C, C++, and C#, works on Windows and Linux, as a standalone app, as well as plugin for Visual Studio (including latest version 2017).

PVS-Studio is particularly good at finding issues with code portability between 32-bit and 64-bit. Out of my personal projects, I already ported CommonLib to 64 bits, and RegScript2 is written to support 64 bits from the start, but porting my main app (music visualization program) to 64 bits is a large task that I still have on my TODO list. Even if I know how to write portable code (use size_t not int etc. :) I made first commits to this repository 8 years ago, when my programming knowledge was much smaller, so I'm sure there are many nasty bugs there. Making it working as 64-bit app will be a difficult task and I'm sure PVS-Studio will help me with that. I will share my experiences and conclusions when I eventually do it.

In the meantime, I recommend to check their Blog, where developers of this tool share many valuable information. They also maintain list of articles describing errors they found in open source projects.

Comments | #tools #c++ #pvs-studio #visual studio Share

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